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We have seen previously the role of some economic entities in a Country, in particular families, companies and banks, whose functions are intertwined and overlap continuously in a system of economy and finance where the State is the reference point, within the European framework.

Who can you ask?

Banks, other financial intermediaries, such as authorised financial companies, directly or through intermediaries affiliated to the bank or the financial company, such as the retailer selling us the car or kitchen.

There are many opportunities for loans, either finalised to a specific purchase, as in the case of a purchase in instalments from a shop, or as sums obtained directly from the bank or financial company to complete personal projects, such as a mortgage on a home. Today all offers and different solutions, for young people, for example, can be found on the internet and loan contracts can also be agreed online, after having carefully examined contractual conditions.

The contract

Reading the contract for the loan we are taking out is important. In the contract we find explicit indications of the total amount of the loan, the duration, any taxes, other accessory expenses if applicable (for example, legal fees), interest on arrears for possible delays in payments, any insurance on the debt in case of risk of insolvency, interest rates.

We have to keep in mind these interest rates, which correspond respectively to the nominal rate of interest and the APR (Annualised Percentage Rate). The first is slightly lower than the second. The one that indicates what we will actually pay is the APR. APR includes the interest plus the capital and the other expenses linked to the credit.

For further information…

Today it is easy to calculate the loan repayment plan, that is to say the monthly instalments to be paid given a certain level of capital advanced and a declared interest rate. The calculation is complex but digital calculators made available online by banks can simulate it. It is useful in any case to know and understand that the interest is calculated every month on the capital to be repaid. Therefore, month after month, instalments are paid, the capital to be repaid is reduced and so does the interest.

Responsible lending

It is necessary to remember that obtaining a loan gives rise to a debt. To the sum advanced, to be normally repaid in instalments, the expenses incurred by the entity advancing the sum must be added – the cost of money, management costs, profit margin, that is to say the profit that allows the bank or financial company to grow

These are items that have an impact on the cost of the loan and that are summarised by the applied interest rate.

Before deciding to ask for a loan or take out a mortgage, we must carefully assess our ability to repay, keeping in mind that in addition to the instalments we must also meet our daily expenses, in particular ordinary ones, both fixed and variable. We calculate if our income is sufficient, if possibly someone else can help us in case of need, if we have other outstanding loans, even if each one is quite small.

The bank also needs to protect itself, to avoid losing, in addition to the interest, the capital advanced. Even when no guarantees are requested before the loan is issued, the bank or financial company will consult credit information systems which record both the loans already issued and the timeliness or otherwise of repayments.

  • Ask the expert.  Before taking any decision it is useful to inquiry at the branch or online to find out the best offers and conditions. It will be the task of the bank official to advise about the most convenient conditions, the best solution, whether to use fixed or variable interest rates for mortgages.

Pre viac informácií…

Finančná kríza z roku 2008 vznikla v USA a spôsobila ju masívna vlna platobnej neschopnosti, ktorá sa týkala hypoték. Tie sa poskytovali veľmi rizikovým klientom, ktorí ich nedokázali splácať. Z hypoték sa stal predmet špekulácií s cieľom ochrániť sa pred rizikom nesplácania. Výsledkom bola realitná bublina, bankrot veľkých amerických bánk a kríza, ktorá zasiahla celý svet a ktorej následky cítiť dodnes.

Národná banka Slovenska zaviedla prísnejšie pravidlá pre poskytovanie pôžičiek a hypoték a maximálne limity úrokových sadzieb. To umožnilo vyčistenie trhu od nespoľahlivých spoločností, kým kvalitné banky a finančné inštitúcie pretrvali.

  • Úvery ako motor ekonomického rozvoja. Prístup súkromných osôb k spotrebným úverom a hypotékam poskytovaných bankami a finančnými inštitúciami podporuje rast firiem, ktoré vyrábajú tovar, a nepriamo zvyšuje počet pracovných miest v rôznych komerčných sektoroch. Spoločnosti na druhej strane využívajú bankové úvery na investovanie do výskumu a na zlepšovanie výrobných kapacít. Štáty vydávaním štátnych dlhopisov tiež využívajú úvery, aby zlepšili služby pre občanov. Aj štát si však musí dať pozor, aby sa príliš nezadlžil!

Pre viac informácií…

Vzťahy medzi štátmi a ich veriteľmi dnes regulujú medzinárodné kontrolné organizácie. Z histórie je známy príklad banky rodiny Bardiových z Florencie, ktorá v roku 1300 skrachovala, pretože panovníci Francúzska a Veľkej Británie nesplácali svoje pôžičky.

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